�W���g�)5w���7 ���_ 15 March] 1886 – 1 December 1934) was a prominent Russian revolutionary and a Soviet politician. Kirov’s murder is convincingly, thoroughly, and dispassionately explained in Oleg Khlevniuk’s book Stalin: The Life Of A Chief («Сталин: Жизнь одного вождя», Олег Хлевнюк). It was clear that Kirov had to go, so it is likely that Stalin ordered his murder. endstream endobj 89 0 obj <>stream According to Montefiore, “During the Civil War, Kirov was one of the swashbuckling commissars in the North Caucasus beside Sergo and Mikoyan. uuid:9e378eb9-db34-4acd-a963-ba1d5bd189f7 Kirov’s position was assumed by Andrei Zhdanov, a loyal follower of Stalin. This planned change allowed  Nikolaev to get to Kirov who shot in the back of the neck. Stalin blamed the murder on his rivals like Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev, both of whom were eventually tried and executed. Together with Sergo Ordzhonikidze, Kirov sought to soften Stalin’s harsh treatment of those who dared disagree with him. Assumptions that Stalin had staged Kirov’s assassination to eliminate someone whose popularity in the party was eclipsing his own and/or to have a pretext to launch a wave of terror within the party to assert his own dictatorial power long circulated among dissident party members and in the »migr» community. However, the link between it and what is known as the Great Terror seems more circumstantial than direct. Version 1: Kirov was killed by a single person, no one else is behind it. He was immediately apprehended, interrogated under the personal supervision of Stalin, and executed. Sergei Kirov, First Secretary of the Leningrad party organization since 1926 and Politbiuro member from 1930, was assassinated in the Smolnyi Institute, the headquarters of the Leningrad party obkom, on December 1, … Eighteen months later, in July 1936, they and fourteen others stood as the accused in an elaborately staged “show trial.”. He was a close, personal friend to Joseph Stalin, and his death in 1934 was used as a pretext to launch the Great Purge. At the 1934 party congress, Kirov received only 3 negative votes whereas Stalin received far more. Texts Images Video Audio Other Resources. }���Յ!\�u�B�����������������꿠8�"vx7���u1]�Z�..�׋�� The Leningrad office of the NKVD – headed by Kirov's close friend, Filipp Medved – looked after Kirov's security. Stalin, who treated Kirov like a son, used this opportunity to try to persuade him to remain loyal to his leadership. �e2���Z@N�����j�Ȃ�v��8`�u� d�*��/�f�P3�,�[hlP� 15 March] 1886 – 1 December 1934) was a prominent early Bolshevik leader in the Soviet Union.Kirov rose through the Communist Party ranks to become head of the party organization in Leningrad. uuid:c42c4516-a961-441c-9d1c-3f3eb1aaa188 Œ�%�ʐ�����?7�{�,�u�� hàx���vlC����m�����Y�����F(o#�����FE~8��K� u���؞�����l�xX¹/t��8�-,Y�ἶ�':s^�����o{�W��=Q�|{7�Xy�����#���k\5�ZM���-����5��*e�IYl�Z�� �-�C�J��6вLH��|>�+�[jԘ��+�A�c5����8y[�n+���q!�zJ����Jj>��t����-=�W�1v*�Le�J�gf4�a�l]x���`J���v�e�}��,�̻%���V\��Ʉ����~� ��0 ɇU� Zaporozhets returned to Len… Zinoviev and Kamenev were convicted of “moral complicity” in the crime and sentenced to prison. When he was seven years old his father died. However, Kirov intervened and had the order countermanded. Sergei Mironovich Kirov [lower-alpha 1] (born Kostrikov; [lower-alpha 2] 27 March [O.S. Yes, it was a lone gunman. H��W�n�6}߯��R�K�~)� �� ����K�Bٕm�Z�����R�4+�V��Æ��!�̙3��4��pJ)���4��/,��ݯ���i��Y}\�ެ�7���ls�٦͘"*,0��2� �*��W/>d?m�]�)�L�l��(�����n��i���e�e���6_�v�ι_��S6.�a7�������f��� _oۦ*��-�z\eC|��1�]���i7��\�_������a ¥C ��C��]_W����5�8������u^և.��mRqyw�-�]����ES_�W��\d8I )y��LA�5�>a>SyU�� !�p��O�8G��8E]���0\H�=��]\�w5W�'. Born on March 27, 1886 as Sergei Mironovich Kostrikov, Kirov was orphaned at a young age and was sent to an orphanage at the age of 7. © 2020 Russian Rulers History. Who Was Kirov 7 Comrade Kirov was born forty-nine years ago, in 1886, in the small town of Urzhum, in the former Vyatka Province near the Urals. Unfortunately for Kirov, Stalin controlled the vote tally and he was elected instead of Sergei. endstream endobj 230 0 obj <>stream The Kirov affair illustrates the power of rumor and legend in a society where reliable information was hard to come by. He fought with the Bolsheviks in the Civil War as a commander in Astrakhan. Charismatic, good looking, and well liked, Kirov was a definite threat to Stalin who was trying to consolidate his power at the time. In need of a pretext for launching a broad purge, Stalin evidently decided that murdering Kirov would be expedient. On December 1st, the guards protecting Kirov was shuffled and not as tight as was normal. One byproduct of Kirov’s assassination were the reports by the NKVD on popular attitudes. Kirov was a full member of the ruling Politburo, leader of the Leningrad party apparatus, and an influential member of the ruling elite. Nikolaev was captured and executed in secret. %PDF-1.6 %���� The man who was hired to carry out the deed was one Leonid Nikolaev, a erratic man who held a grudge against the Party leadership. Stalin allegedly ordered the NKVD Commissar, Genrikh Yagoda, to replace Medved with Grigory Yeremeyevich Yevdokimov, a close associate of Stalin. 3 versions exist as to who is behind the crime and motives. Assassination and Aftermath. Nevertheless, within the party, Kirov enjoyed martyr status, and his name was affixed to cities, streets, and such venerable institutions as the former Marinskii Ballet in Leningrad. As usual, that summer Kirov and Stalin went on holiday together. application/pdf As analyzed by historians who recently gained access to them, they indicate that many people attributed the act to dark forces (in some versions, the Jews), looked forward to Stalin sharing the same fate, and were more concerned about the return of food shortages than the political fallout. Stalin asked him to leave Leningrad to join him in Moscow. All Rights Reserved. The assassin, Leonid Nikolaev, was a frustrated party apparatchik who had gained entry to Kirov’s third-floor office and shot him on the spot. The head of the secret police, the NKVD was Genrikh Yagoda. When a bourgeois was caught hiding his own furniture, Kirov ordered him shot.”. Arrests of Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev and many of their associates followed as did summary executions of alleged White conspirators. 2012-01-16T11:52:26-08:00 His death was blamed on both general secretary Joseph Stalin and on anti-Stalinist Communists, without a clear culprit ever getting identified. �! h�Ęk�7��ʽ=w'�$A�M)�1��1ad�)4.�ݻ���=�����,���Gw��Ir"��@�P�$�$�ڜX�|`�\�����k�� �30��h�!h� �kג Ԯ �K;E鹿~�Yg�!j{�jWJ�C�y%�T@��.B�B�ƤC���2Ġ��:�~���t�����UL? Stalin for his part used the Kirov assassination to begin his Great Purge. Because of this stance, he became increasingly popular much to the chagrin of Stalin. 229 0 obj <>stream Not only was Nikolaev executed but so was most of his family and a number of his friends. ��Ѧ˧���;��� ��q�!��C3Pt9hsq|��?��9]/V�oO��N�^'��~�Ս��ZQ�0=WX+\+��������v�z�~�Y|_O�����M���ǟ��:؇/:��C��������7x�[�'�犺���(8w�q׮��0C��L.��?���t���|E�� 1��j�t��ڳ�"Pp�0�p"�1 [c�J��a�Ux�/���^\�u��v���-P>t�3�����3�� Sergei Kirov, First Secretary of the Leningrad party organization since 1926 and Politbiuro member from 1930, was assassinated in the Smolnyi Institute, the headquarters of the Leningrad party obkom, on December 1, 1934. Within days of the assassination, Stalin announced that Nikolaev had been put up to the job by Zinovievites — that is, supporters of Grigorii Zinoviev who had been ousted as Leningrad party boss in 1926 and was in disgrace — as well as, incongruously, remnants of White Guardists and other “socially alien” elements. 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sergei kirov assassination

Sergei Kirov, Russian Communist leader whose assassination marked the beginning of the Great Purge in the Soviet Union (1934–38). ScandAll PRO V1.8 Update2 For this he was awarded the position as head of the Communist Party in Leningrad. Subject essay: Lewis Siegelbaum. Head of the Leningrad Party, Kirov was the chief rival to Joseph Stalin. The Kirov assassination trials marked the beginning of Stalin’s massive four-year purge of Soviet society, in which millions of people were imprisoned, exiled or killed. Yagoda ordered Medved's deputy, Vania Zaporozhets, to undertake the job. Charismatic, good looking, and well liked, Kirov was a definite threat to Stalin who was trying to consolidate his power at the time. Sergei Mironovich Kirov was assassinated on December 1st 1934, likely by orders from his rival Joseph Stalin. His education was paid for by wealthy benefactors which allowed him to graduate from an industrial school in Kazan where he received an engineering degree. The Leningrad office of the NKVD - headed by Kirov’s close friend, Feodor Medved - looked after Kirov’s security. Yet, at least two official investigations in the 1960s and a Politbiuro Commission appointed in 1989 failed to establish Stalin’s complicity or that of the NKVD in Kirov’s murder. What happened with Kirov's murder is complicated. �����&_WW��j߾��C�����vXm�u�_�6]��y����}��������c�,�Ň�Ƴ�����m7� -v��/����K;t��(��Ҩ͍��ٯ�1�wQ����.�y�ٴ�|�����E�ݯ�~��w��1n݁�Nr���f�_�C�ܽ�;��nē�����3��ӭ�X�Ow�1��NV�O����Ou[�"�ῥs�����r����ݧ�v���˝hD:�.t�H���E?ey����0���.�;b>�W���g�)5w���7 ���_ 15 March] 1886 – 1 December 1934) was a prominent Russian revolutionary and a Soviet politician. Kirov’s murder is convincingly, thoroughly, and dispassionately explained in Oleg Khlevniuk’s book Stalin: The Life Of A Chief («Сталин: Жизнь одного вождя», Олег Хлевнюк). It was clear that Kirov had to go, so it is likely that Stalin ordered his murder. endstream endobj 89 0 obj <>stream According to Montefiore, “During the Civil War, Kirov was one of the swashbuckling commissars in the North Caucasus beside Sergo and Mikoyan. uuid:9e378eb9-db34-4acd-a963-ba1d5bd189f7 Kirov’s position was assumed by Andrei Zhdanov, a loyal follower of Stalin. This planned change allowed  Nikolaev to get to Kirov who shot in the back of the neck. Stalin blamed the murder on his rivals like Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev, both of whom were eventually tried and executed. Together with Sergo Ordzhonikidze, Kirov sought to soften Stalin’s harsh treatment of those who dared disagree with him. Assumptions that Stalin had staged Kirov’s assassination to eliminate someone whose popularity in the party was eclipsing his own and/or to have a pretext to launch a wave of terror within the party to assert his own dictatorial power long circulated among dissident party members and in the »migr» community. However, the link between it and what is known as the Great Terror seems more circumstantial than direct. Version 1: Kirov was killed by a single person, no one else is behind it. He was immediately apprehended, interrogated under the personal supervision of Stalin, and executed. Sergei Kirov, First Secretary of the Leningrad party organization since 1926 and Politbiuro member from 1930, was assassinated in the Smolnyi Institute, the headquarters of the Leningrad party obkom, on December 1, … Eighteen months later, in July 1936, they and fourteen others stood as the accused in an elaborately staged “show trial.”. He was a close, personal friend to Joseph Stalin, and his death in 1934 was used as a pretext to launch the Great Purge. At the 1934 party congress, Kirov received only 3 negative votes whereas Stalin received far more. Texts Images Video Audio Other Resources. }���Յ!\�u�B�����������������꿠8�"vx7���u1]�Z�..�׋�� The Leningrad office of the NKVD – headed by Kirov's close friend, Filipp Medved – looked after Kirov's security. Stalin, who treated Kirov like a son, used this opportunity to try to persuade him to remain loyal to his leadership. �e2���Z@N�����j�Ȃ�v��8`�u� d�*��/�f�P3�,�[hlP� 15 March] 1886 – 1 December 1934) was a prominent early Bolshevik leader in the Soviet Union.Kirov rose through the Communist Party ranks to become head of the party organization in Leningrad. uuid:c42c4516-a961-441c-9d1c-3f3eb1aaa188 Œ�%�ʐ�����?7�{�,�u�� hàx���vlC����m�����Y�����F(o#�����FE~8��K� u���؞�����l�xX¹/t��8�-,Y�ἶ�':s^�����o{�W��=Q�|{7�Xy�����#���k\5�ZM���-����5��*e�IYl�Z�� �-�C�J��6вLH��|>�+�[jԘ��+�A�c5����8y[�n+���q!�zJ����Jj>��t����-=�W�1v*�Le�J�gf4�a�l]x���`J���v�e�}��,�̻%���V\��Ʉ����~� ��0 ɇU� Zaporozhets returned to Len… Zinoviev and Kamenev were convicted of “moral complicity” in the crime and sentenced to prison. When he was seven years old his father died. However, Kirov intervened and had the order countermanded. Sergei Mironovich Kirov [lower-alpha 1] (born Kostrikov; [lower-alpha 2] 27 March [O.S. Yes, it was a lone gunman. H��W�n�6}߯��R�K�~)� �� ����K�Bٕm�Z�����R�4+�V��Æ��!�̙3��4��pJ)���4��/,��ݯ���i��Y}\�ެ�7���ls�٦͘"*,0��2� �*��W/>d?m�]�)�L�l��(�����n��i���e�e���6_�v�ι_��S6.�a7�������f��� _oۦ*��-�z\eC|��1�]���i7��\�_������a ¥C ��C��]_W����5�8������u^և.��mRqyw�-�]����ES_�W��\d8I )y��LA�5�>a>SyU�� !�p��O�8G��8E]���0\H�=��]\�w5W�'. Born on March 27, 1886 as Sergei Mironovich Kostrikov, Kirov was orphaned at a young age and was sent to an orphanage at the age of 7. © 2020 Russian Rulers History. Who Was Kirov 7 Comrade Kirov was born forty-nine years ago, in 1886, in the small town of Urzhum, in the former Vyatka Province near the Urals. Unfortunately for Kirov, Stalin controlled the vote tally and he was elected instead of Sergei. endstream endobj 230 0 obj <>stream The Kirov affair illustrates the power of rumor and legend in a society where reliable information was hard to come by. He fought with the Bolsheviks in the Civil War as a commander in Astrakhan. Charismatic, good looking, and well liked, Kirov was a definite threat to Stalin who was trying to consolidate his power at the time. In need of a pretext for launching a broad purge, Stalin evidently decided that murdering Kirov would be expedient. On December 1st, the guards protecting Kirov was shuffled and not as tight as was normal. One byproduct of Kirov’s assassination were the reports by the NKVD on popular attitudes. Kirov was a full member of the ruling Politburo, leader of the Leningrad party apparatus, and an influential member of the ruling elite. Nikolaev was captured and executed in secret. %PDF-1.6 %���� The man who was hired to carry out the deed was one Leonid Nikolaev, a erratic man who held a grudge against the Party leadership. Stalin allegedly ordered the NKVD Commissar, Genrikh Yagoda, to replace Medved with Grigory Yeremeyevich Yevdokimov, a close associate of Stalin. 3 versions exist as to who is behind the crime and motives. Assassination and Aftermath. Nevertheless, within the party, Kirov enjoyed martyr status, and his name was affixed to cities, streets, and such venerable institutions as the former Marinskii Ballet in Leningrad. As usual, that summer Kirov and Stalin went on holiday together. application/pdf As analyzed by historians who recently gained access to them, they indicate that many people attributed the act to dark forces (in some versions, the Jews), looked forward to Stalin sharing the same fate, and were more concerned about the return of food shortages than the political fallout. Stalin asked him to leave Leningrad to join him in Moscow. All Rights Reserved. The assassin, Leonid Nikolaev, was a frustrated party apparatchik who had gained entry to Kirov’s third-floor office and shot him on the spot. The head of the secret police, the NKVD was Genrikh Yagoda. When a bourgeois was caught hiding his own furniture, Kirov ordered him shot.”. Arrests of Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev and many of their associates followed as did summary executions of alleged White conspirators. 2012-01-16T11:52:26-08:00 His death was blamed on both general secretary Joseph Stalin and on anti-Stalinist Communists, without a clear culprit ever getting identified. �! h�Ęk�7��ʽ=w'�$A�M)�1��1ad�)4.�ݻ���=�����,���Gw��Ir"��@�P�$�$�ڜX�|`�\�����k�� �30��h�!h� �kג Ԯ �K;E鹿~�Yg�!j{�jWJ�C�y%�T@��.B�B�ƤC���2Ġ��:�~���t�����UL? Stalin for his part used the Kirov assassination to begin his Great Purge. Because of this stance, he became increasingly popular much to the chagrin of Stalin. 229 0 obj <>stream Not only was Nikolaev executed but so was most of his family and a number of his friends. ��Ѧ˧���;��� ��q�!��C3Pt9hsq|��?��9]/V�oO��N�^'��~�Ս��ZQ�0=WX+\+��������v�z�~�Y|_O�����M���ǟ��:؇/:��C��������7x�[�'�犺���(8w�q׮��0C��L.��?���t���|E�� 1��j�t��ڳ�"Pp�0�p"�1 [c�J��a�Ux�/���^\�u��v���-P>t�3�����3�� Sergei Kirov, First Secretary of the Leningrad party organization since 1926 and Politbiuro member from 1930, was assassinated in the Smolnyi Institute, the headquarters of the Leningrad party obkom, on December 1, 1934. Within days of the assassination, Stalin announced that Nikolaev had been put up to the job by Zinovievites — that is, supporters of Grigorii Zinoviev who had been ousted as Leningrad party boss in 1926 and was in disgrace — as well as, incongruously, remnants of White Guardists and other “socially alien” elements.

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