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The constitution establishes independent executive, legislative and judicial branches and mandates a popularly elected president limited to three five-year terms. Madagascar’s currency has fairly stabilized over the last ten years indicating good tidings ahead.  The island also produces some of the world's finest chocolate; Chocolaterie Robert, established in 1940, is the most famous chocolate company on the island.  A series of protests led by Andry Rajoelina against Ravalomanana in early 2009 became violent, with more than 170 people killed.  The majority of roads in Madagascar are unpaved, with many becoming impassable in the rainy season.  The next largest cities are Antsirabe (500,000), Toamasina (450,000) and Mahajanga (400,000). , The wealth generated by maritime trade spurred the rise of organized kingdoms on the island, some of which had grown quite powerful by the 17th century.  Tourism focuses on the niche eco-tourism market, capitalizing on Madagascar's unique biodiversity, unspoiled natural habitats, national parks and lemur species. The major industries operating in Antananarivo include processing of tobacco and food, leather and soap manufacture, brewing, textiles, etc. , No official languages were mentioned in the Constitution of 1992, although Malagasy was identified as the national language. The Franco-Hova Wars (1883–1896) resulted in the fall of the Merina Kingdom and the establishment of a French protectorate (1896) that became a colony one year later. , The French established trading posts along the east coast in the late 17th century. , Running water and electricity are supplied at the national level by a government service provider, Jirama, which is unable to service the entire population. , Ratsiraka's dwindling popularity in the late 1980s reached a critical point in 1991 when presidential guards opened fire on unarmed protesters during a rally. , At the local level, the island's 22 provinces are administered by a governor and provincial council. Teen pregnancy rates of 14.8 percent in 2011, much higher than the African average, are a contributing factor to rapid population growth. , Madagascar's highest peaks rise from three prominent highland massifs: Maromokotro 2,876 m (9,436 ft) in the Tsaratanana Massif is the island's highest point, followed by Boby Peak 2,658 m (8,720 ft) in the Andringitra Massif, and Tsiafajavona 2,643 m (8,671 ft) in the Ankaratra Massif.  This distinctive ecology has led some ecologists to refer to Madagascar as the "eighth continent", and the island has been classified by Conservation International as a biodiversity hotspot.  Traditional community tribunals, called dina, are presided over by elders and other respected figures and remain a key means by which justice is served in rural areas where state presence is weak. Even before the colonial rule established itself in Madagascar, the city of Antananarivo was already flourishing. , Government school construction initiatives have ensured at least one primary school per fokontany and one lower secondary school within each commune. In 1838, it was estimated that as many as 100,000 people in Imerina died as a result of the tangena ordeal, constituting roughly 20 percent of the population. By John Misachi on August 1 2017 in Economics.  A small but growing number of fine art galleries in Antananarivo, and several other urban areas, offer paintings by local artists, and annual art events, such as the Hosotra open-air exhibition in the capital, contribute to the continuing development of fine arts in Madagascar. Forced labour was introduced in favour of the French companies. Our currency rankings show that the most popular Madagascar Ariary exchange rate is the MGA to EUR rate.The currency code for Ariary is MGA, and the currency symbol is Ar. Send a cheap Money Transfer to New Zealand, Get a MGA currency data API for my business. Institut National de la Statistique, Madagascar. On early issues, the franc denomination was the most prominent. It is subdivided into 5 iraimbilanja and is one of only two non-decimal currencies currently circulating (the other is the Mauritanian ouguiya). The many varieties of laoka may be vegetarian or include animal proteins, and typically feature a sauce flavored with such ingredients as ginger, onion, garlic, tomato, vanilla, coconut milk, salt, curry powder, green peppercorns or, less commonly, other spices or herbs.  During Ravalomanana's first term, thousands of new primary schools and additional classrooms were constructed, older buildings were renovated, and tens of thousands of new primary teachers were recruited and trained.  However, the sector has been growing steadily for a few years; In 2016, 293,000 tourists landed in the African island with an increase of 20% compared to 2015; For 2017 the country has the goal of reaching 366,000 visitors, while for 2018 government estimates are expected to reach 500,000 annual tourists..  In addition to the high expense of medical care relative to the average Malagasy income, the prevalence of trained medical professionals remains extremely low. Currency: Malagasy ariary : Time zone: UTC+3 • Summer UTC+3 (not observed) Driving side: right: Calling code +261: ISO 3166 code : MG: Internet TLD.mg: The archaeological evidence of the earliest human foraging on Madagascar may date up to 10,000 years ago. Several colonization and conversion missions were ordered by King João III and by the Viceroy of India, including one in 1553 by Baltazar Lobo de Sousa. The largest coastal ethnic subgroups are the Betsimisaraka (14.9 percent) and the Tsimihety and Sakalava (6 percent each). , Archaeological finds such as cut marks on bones found in the northwest and stone tools in the northeast indicate that Madagascar was visited by foragers around 2000 BC. Over 300 species of birds have been recorded on the island, of which over 60 percent (including four families and 42 genera) are endemic. Jean Ralaimongo, for example, returned to Madagascar in 1924 and became embroiled in labor questions that were causing considerable tension throughout the island. in June 2008 at the Bronx Zoo in New York. Coins and banknotes were denominated in both the official francs and the semi-official ariary and iraimbilanja since 1961.  In 2017, Madagascar signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Several smaller MDRM rivals included the Party of the Malagasy Disinherited (Parti des Déshérités Malgaches), whose members were mainly côtiers or descendants of slaves from the central highlands. The two delegates also objected to the separate French and Malagasy electoral colleges, even though Madagascar was represented in the French National Assembly. The archaeological evidence of the earliest human foraging on Madagascar may date up to 10,000 years ago. In 2003–2004, new notes were introduced in denominations of 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10,000 ariary. According to the constitution, executive power is exercised by the government while legislative power is vested in the ministerial cabinet, the Senate and the National Assembly, although in reality these two latter bodies have very little power or legislative role. Lower denomination coins are also now issued denominated in ariary but with the main design unchanged. Prior to the 19th century, all education in Madagascar was informal and typically served to teach practical skills as well as social and cultural values, including respect for ancestors and elders. However, in 1998, these notes were replaced by new issues which only gave the franc denominations in numerals. Over 50 percent of the nation's export revenue was spent on debt servicing. The Ivato International Airport is the most important airport in the country that is located about 15 km away from the city center. Education became mandatory between the ages of 6 to 13 and focused primarily on French language and practical skills. Malagasy Ariary was first circulated in 1961 to replace the Malagasy franc at an exchange rate of one Ariary for 5 Malagasy francs. Coins and banknotes were issued denominated in both francs and ariary, with the sub-unit of the ariary, the iraimbilanja, worth 1⁄5 of an ariary and therefore equal to the franc. Primary school fees were eliminated, and kits containing basic school supplies were distributed to primary students.  The production and weaving of silk can be traced back to the island's earliest settlers, and Madagascar's national dress, the woven lamba, has evolved into a varied and refined art. Moraingy, a type of hand-to-hand combat, is a popular spectator sport in coastal regions. Superior armed strength and educational and cultural advantages had given the Merina a dominant influence on the political process during much of the country's history. The complexity of Malagasy meals can range from the simple, traditional preparations introduced by the earliest settlers, to the refined festival dishes prepared for the island's 19th-century monarchs. to Open at Bronx Zoo in Green, Refurbished Lion House", "Stone tools and foraging in northern Madagascar challenge Holocene extinction models", "Early Holocene human presence in Madagascar evidenced by exploitation of avian megafauna", "New evidence of megafaunal bone damage indicates late colonization of Madagascar", "Os dois descobrimentos da ilha de São Lourenço mandados fazer pelo vice-rei D. Jeronimio de Azevedo nos anos de 1613 à 1616", "Cronica do mujto alto e poderoso Rey destes Reynos de Portugal, Dom João o III", "Kingdoms of Madagascar: Maroserana and Merina", "Political change in Madagascar: populist democracy or neopatrimonialism by another name?
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