On the night of April 12, 1945, Truman was urgently summoned to the White House, where he was met by Eleanor Roosevelt, who informed him that President Roosevelt was dead. [203] A third, in 1951, established the Committee on Government Contract Compliance (CGCC), which sought to prevent defense contractors from discriminating because of race. [225] Though often critical of the far-right's unrestrained attacks on alleged Communists, members of the ADA attacked left-wing activists who, they feared, took orders from Communist leaders in the Soviet Union. In 1947, Truman promulgated the Truman Doctrine, which called for the United States to prevent the spread of Communism through foreign aid and other means. The U.S. had only 9 atomic bombs in 1946, but the stockpile grew to 650 by 1951. ", Keith W. Olson, "The G. I. I'd rather be here than president of the United States.". Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, and Nagasaki three days later, leaving approximately 135,000 dead; another 130,000 would die from radiation sickness and other bomb-related illnesses in the following five years. [168], The G.I.

I don't know if you fellas ever had a load of hay fall on you, but when they told me what happened yesterday, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me. [86] The U.S. also established alliances in the region through the creation of the Mutual Defense Treaty with the Philippines and the ANZUS pact with Australia and New Zealand. [9] Byrnes lost Truman's trust with his conciliatory policy towards the Soviet Union in late 1945,[10] and he was replaced by former General George Marshall in January 1947. Barton J. Bernstein, "Roosevelt, Truman, and the atomic bomb, 1941–1945: a reinterpretation. [12] The National Security Act of 1947 combined and reorganized all military forces by merging the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (which was later renamed as the Department of Defense).

He had been Vice President of the United States for only 82 days when he succeeded to the presidency. [45] The first test of thermonuclear weaponry was conducted by the United States in 1952; the Soviet Union would perform its own thermonuclear test in August 1953. The Japanese suffered from poor economic conditions until the beginning of the Korean War, when U.S. purchases stimulated growth. [156], The United States had instituted price controls and wage controls during the war in order to avoid large-scale inflation or deflation. [54] He personally approved of Winston Churchill's March 1946 "Iron Curtain" speech, which urged the United States to take the lead of an anti-Soviet alliance, though he did not publicly endorse it. [56] The Soviet Union and the United States also clashed in Germany, which had been divided into four occupation zones.

[248] However, Dallek points to the 1946 elections as the moment when Truman became more sure of himself as president, and stopped trying to appease all factions of the public. Vaughan. [138] On April 5, House Minority Leader Joseph Martin made public a letter from MacArthur that strongly criticized Truman's handling of the Korean War and called for an expansion of the conflict against China. [24] While at the Potsdam Conference, Truman was informed that the Trinity test of the first atomic bomb on July 16 had been successful. [91] Both houses of Congress approved of the initial appropriation, known as the Foreign Assistance Act, by large majorities, and Truman signed the act into law in April 1948. [227] In March 1947, Truman issued Executive Order 9835, which ordered purges of left-wingers who refused to disavow communism. [137], MacArthur made several public demands for an escalation of the war, leading to a break with Truman in late 1950 and early 1951. ", Kort, Michael. The civil war baffled Washington, as both the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communists under Mao Zedong had American advocates.

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[46] Thus in early 1950, Truman made the decision to go forward with the H-bomb. Fearing that Congress would reject the proposal, Truman turned to the well-connected Bernard Baruch to represent the U.S. position to the United Nations. [177][d] Congress also passed bills designed to cut taxes, weaken the Interstate Commerce Commission, and reduce the number of employees covered by Social Security, but all were voted by Truman in 1947. Chiang's strong support among sections of the American public, along with desire to assure other allies that the U.S. was committed to containment, convinced Truman to increase economic and military aid to the Nationalists.

Along with Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson and a group of advisers known as the "Wise Men," Marshall emerged as one of the major architects of postwar foreign policy. [80] From the beginning, he assumed that the American monopoly on the atomic bomb was adequate protection against any and all external threats.

On the night of April 12, 1945, Truman was urgently summoned to the White House, where he was met by Eleanor Roosevelt, who informed him that President Roosevelt was dead. [203] A third, in 1951, established the Committee on Government Contract Compliance (CGCC), which sought to prevent defense contractors from discriminating because of race. [225] Though often critical of the far-right's unrestrained attacks on alleged Communists, members of the ADA attacked left-wing activists who, they feared, took orders from Communist leaders in the Soviet Union. In 1947, Truman promulgated the Truman Doctrine, which called for the United States to prevent the spread of Communism through foreign aid and other means. The U.S. had only 9 atomic bombs in 1946, but the stockpile grew to 650 by 1951. ", Keith W. Olson, "The G. I. I'd rather be here than president of the United States.". Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, and Nagasaki three days later, leaving approximately 135,000 dead; another 130,000 would die from radiation sickness and other bomb-related illnesses in the following five years. [168], The G.I.

I don't know if you fellas ever had a load of hay fall on you, but when they told me what happened yesterday, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me. [86] The U.S. also established alliances in the region through the creation of the Mutual Defense Treaty with the Philippines and the ANZUS pact with Australia and New Zealand. [9] Byrnes lost Truman's trust with his conciliatory policy towards the Soviet Union in late 1945,[10] and he was replaced by former General George Marshall in January 1947. Barton J. Bernstein, "Roosevelt, Truman, and the atomic bomb, 1941–1945: a reinterpretation. [12] The National Security Act of 1947 combined and reorganized all military forces by merging the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (which was later renamed as the Department of Defense).

He had been Vice President of the United States for only 82 days when he succeeded to the presidency. [45] The first test of thermonuclear weaponry was conducted by the United States in 1952; the Soviet Union would perform its own thermonuclear test in August 1953. The Japanese suffered from poor economic conditions until the beginning of the Korean War, when U.S. purchases stimulated growth. [156], The United States had instituted price controls and wage controls during the war in order to avoid large-scale inflation or deflation. [54] He personally approved of Winston Churchill's March 1946 "Iron Curtain" speech, which urged the United States to take the lead of an anti-Soviet alliance, though he did not publicly endorse it. [56] The Soviet Union and the United States also clashed in Germany, which had been divided into four occupation zones.

[248] However, Dallek points to the 1946 elections as the moment when Truman became more sure of himself as president, and stopped trying to appease all factions of the public. Vaughan. [138] On April 5, House Minority Leader Joseph Martin made public a letter from MacArthur that strongly criticized Truman's handling of the Korean War and called for an expansion of the conflict against China. [24] While at the Potsdam Conference, Truman was informed that the Trinity test of the first atomic bomb on July 16 had been successful. [91] Both houses of Congress approved of the initial appropriation, known as the Foreign Assistance Act, by large majorities, and Truman signed the act into law in April 1948. [227] In March 1947, Truman issued Executive Order 9835, which ordered purges of left-wingers who refused to disavow communism. [137], MacArthur made several public demands for an escalation of the war, leading to a break with Truman in late 1950 and early 1951. ", Kort, Michael. The civil war baffled Washington, as both the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communists under Mao Zedong had American advocates.

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