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Mobile telephone service is available across the country through various operators. The town of Ouidah on the central coast is the spiritual center of Beninese Vodun. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, Towns With The Lowest Violent Crime Rates In The US. He died after a long reign and was succeeded by Ere, his eldest son. Frying in palm or peanut oil is the most common meat preparation, and smoked fish is commonly prepared in Benin. They consist of 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) of city iya and an estimated 16,000 kilometres (9,900 miles) in … [33] Marxism–Leninism was abolished as the nation's form of government. It is a writing based on graphs of different color and shape combinations. Benin scored highly in the 2013 Ibrahim Index of African Governance, which comprehensively measures the state of governance across the continent. segun@dawodu.com . It had important trade relations with Portugal during the last centuries before being destroyed in 1897 by a British punitive raid. The linguistic landscape of Benin is quite diverse. This name would be reinterpreted by the Portuguese as "Benin" in their own language. Not to be confused with the West African country of, Federal Government Girls College, Benin City, "International Rubber Study Group - Nigeria", "Story of cities #5: Benin City, the mighty medieval capital now lost without trace", "The Desperate Journey of a Trafficked Girl", Story of cities #5: Benin City, the mighty medieval capital now lost without trace, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Benin_City&oldid=983515453, Sacred sites in traditional African religions, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with unknown parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 October 2020, at 17:46. Vbè ore 'nì rue . Education for the deaf in Benin uses American Sign Language, introduced by the deaf American missionary Andrew Foster. Therefore, Ọranmiyan of Ife, the father of Ẹwẹka I, the Ọba of Benin, was also the father of Ajaka, the first Alaafin of Ọyọ. [66], The government has devoted more than 4% of GDP to education since 2009. Alternatively, Yorubas believe Oduduwa was from the Middle East and migrated from that area to the present Ile Ife. [10] Benin implemented a National Literacy and Adult Education Policy, which allowed adult speakers of national languages to use their languages for cultural advancement. [6] This was about the time the people of Ọkpẹkpẹ migrated from Benin City. Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom's many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area. [45], Although trade unions in Benin represent up to 75% of the formal workforce, the large informal economy has been noted by the International Trade Union Confederation (ITCU) to contain ongoing problems, including a lack of women's wage equality, the use of child labor, and the continuing issue of forced labor. It is also the season when farmers burn brush in the fields.[46]. This means they use slightly under double as much biocapacity as Benin contains. urban agglom., 1,495,000. Corrections? Kóyò . Benin uses the CFA franc, which is pegged to the euro. [68], Benin has the third-highest publication intensity for scientific journals in West Africa, according to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded. [47] The foreign community also includes many Lebanese and Indians involved in trade and commerce. Its museum (1960) has a notable collection of some of the kingdom’s early pieces. This includes Beninese Yoruba, which in Nigeria is written with both diacritics and digraphs. Vb ye h ? Nation of people who are mostly located in the Midwestern part of Nigeria, Western Africa. [3], The orthographies of the national languages of Benin are codified and periodically updated by the Ministry of Literacy and Promotion of National Languages (Ministère de l’Alphabétisation et de la Promotion des langues nationales) and the National Center for Applied Linguistics (Centre national de linguistique appliquée).[18]. Within this expenditure, Benin devoted quite a large share to tertiary education: 0.97% of GDP. Some English is also spoken. a manual for monitoring and evaluating research structures and organizations (2013); a manual on how to select research programmes and projects and apply to the National Fund for Scientific Research and Technological Innovation (2013) for competitive grants; a draft act for funding scientific research and innovation and a draft code of ethics for scientific research and innovation were both submitted to the Supreme Court in 2014; a strategic plan for scientific research and innovation (under development in 2015). In 1958, France granted autonomy to the Republic of Dahomey, and full independence on 1 August 1960, which is celebrated each year as Independence Day, a national holiday. [67], The regulatory framework has evolved since 2006 till date when the country's first science policy was prepared. In the past decade, baseball has been introduced to the country.[78]. In the 12th century, great palace intrigue and the battle for power erupted between the warrior crown prince Ekaladerhan, son of the last Ogiso and his young paternal uncle. According to Ethnologue, it is spoken by 3.8 million people (2016) out of the total population of more than 10 million. ", Facts About the Republic of Benin: Official Document, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Languages_of_Benin&oldid=977405370, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 September 2020, at 17:09. For the next twelve years after 1960, ethnic strife contributed to a period of turbulence. In 1989, riots broke out when the regime did not have enough money to pay its army. He and Erinwide had a son. Today it is an important lingua franca between diverse ethnic groups. Behind the coast lies the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic-covered plateaus of southern Benin (altitude between 20 and 200 m (66 and 656 ft)), which are split by valleys running north to south along the Couffo, Zou, and Ouémé Rivers. This region was referred to as the Slave Coast from as early as the 17th century due to the large number of enslaved people who were shipped to the New World during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. …animal figures; and Yoruba and Benin shrine pieces containing mammal and bird forms.…. Benin City has long been famous for its “bronzes”—actually brass work, some of which is said to date from the 13th century—and for its ivory and wood carvings. French. Benin possesses a total of 6,787 km of highway, of which 1,357 km are paved. The ramparts ranged in size from shallow traces to gigantic 20-meter-high (66 feet) around Benin City. Grammatical structures are typically borrowed from the speaker's first language. Whether it is in Benin City the largest town, or in smaller towns or villages in the land, leaders and circumstances create or influence the morning greetings. Rail transport in Benin consists of 578 km (359 mi) of single track, 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge railway. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Knowing French is a matter of prestige in Benin, and those seeking work in the cities of Benin are most often required to be conversant in French. [10] Benin implemented a National Literacy and Adult Education Policy, which allowed adult speakers of national languages to use their languages for cultural advancement. Secondary schools in Nigeria are, among others, Edo College, Edo Boys High School (Adolo College), Western Boys High School, Oba Ewuare Grammar School, Greater Tomorrow Secondary School, Garrick Memorial Secondary School, Winrose Secondary School, Asoro Grammar School, Eghosa Grammar School, Edokpolor Grammar School, Covenant Christian Academy, Niger College, Presentation National High School, Immaculate Conception College, Idia College, University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School, University Preparatory Secondary School, Auntie Maria School, Benin Technical College, Headquarters of Word of Faith Group of Schools, Lydia Group of Schools, Nosakhare Model Education Centre and Igbinedion Educational Center, Federal Government Girls College, Benin City, Paragon Comprehensive College, and Itohan Girls Grammar School. It has an almost argotic character.[6]. [4], It is important to know French to get an administrative position or work in the cities in general, and speaking it is a mark of prestige. The indigenous people of Benin City are the Edo people (The Benin People), and they speak the Edo language and other Edoid languages. The centre of Nigeria’s rubber production, Benin City has several processing plants and a crepe rubber factory. For the majority of French speakers in Benin it is the second language. In 1991, it was replaced by the current multi-party Republic of Benin.[16]. Some of the vocational schools in Benin City include Micro International Training Center, Computer Technology and Training Center, Okunbor Group of Schools. It is especially the conjugation rules that have been changed the most, especially the less common forms like the literary style. [3] In the "Punitive Expedition", a 1,200-strong British force, under the command of Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, conquered and razed the city after all but two men from a previous British expeditionary force led by Acting Consul General Philips were killed. The city’s present artisans still practice the ancient method of cire perdue (“lost-wax”) casting, and its wood-carvers are organized into a cooperative craft society. the unfavorable organizational framework for research: weak governance, a lack of co-operation between research structures and the absence of an official document on the status of researchers; the inadequate use of human resources and the lack of any motivational policy for researchers; and. It is marshy and dotted with lakes and lagoons communicating with the ocean. [60], The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt situation, with Benin benefiting from a G8 debt reduction announced in July 2005, while pressing for more rapid structural reforms. The success of the fair multi-party elections in Benin won praise internationally. The capture of Benin paved the way for British military occupation and the merging of later regional British conquests into the Niger Coast Protectorate, the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria and finally, into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. [28] The president who led the country to independence was Hubert Maga.[29][30]. The Trans-West African Coastal Highway crosses Benin, connecting it to Nigeria to the east, and Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast to the west. In 2015, public expenditure on education (all levels) amounted to 4.4% of GDP, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Beninese cuisine involves fresh meals served with a variety of key sauces. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the legislature. Before 1975, the Republic of Benin was known as Dahomey, its French colonial name. Benin's politics take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, in which the President of Benin is both head of state and head of government, within a multi-party system. Benin City is the centre of Nigeria's rubber industry, and oil production is also a significant industry.

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